Biology 7530
Instructor: C. Ray Chandler

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A Biometry course can only scratch the surface of a large and complex field. To become proficient in biostatistics, there is no substitute for (1) hands-on experience and (2) reading literature beyond that required for class. The following brief bibliography is meant to facilitate the latter.

2 X 2 Contingency Tables

D'Agostino, R.B., W. Chase, and A. Belanger. 1988. The appropriateness of some common procedures for testing the equality of two independent binomial populations. American Statistician 42:198-202.

Greenland, S. 1991. On the logical justification of conditional tests for two-by-two contingency tables. American Statistician 45:248-251.

Little, R. J. A. 1989. Testing the equality of two independent proportions. American Statistician 43:283-288.

A Posteriori Tests

Day, R. W., and G. P. Quinn. 1989. Comparisons of treatments after an analysis of variance in ecology. Ecological Monographs 59:433-463.

Analysis of Variance

Lewontin, R. C. 1974. The analysis of variance and the analysis of causes. Amer. J. Human Gen. 26:400-411.

Underwood, A. J. 1981. Techniques of analysis of variance in experimental marine biology and ecology. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 19:513-605.

Bayesian Methods

Ellison, A. M. 1996. An introduction to Bayesian inference for ecological research and environmental decision making. Ecological Applications 6:1036-1046.

Reckhow, K. H. 1990. Bayesian inference in non-replicated ecological studies. Ecology 71:2053-2059.

Wade, P. R. 2000. Bayesian methods in conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 14:1308-1316.

Wolfson, L. J., J. B. Kadane, and M. J. Small. 1996. Bayesian environmental policy decisions: two case studies. Ecological Applications 6:1056-1066.


Hurlbert, S. H., and M. D. White. 1993. Experiments with fresh-water invertebrate zooplanktivores - quality of statistical analysis. Bull. Marine Sci. 53:128-153.

Shrader-Frechette, K. S., and E. D. McCoy. 1992. Statistics, costs, and nationality in ecological inference. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7:96-98.

Simberloff, D. 1990. Hypotheses, errors, and statistical assumptions. Herpetologica 46:351-357.

Stewart-Oaten, A. 1995. Rules and judgement in statistics: three examples. Ecology 76:2001-2009.

Welsh, A. H., A. T. Peterson, and S. A. Altmann. 1988. The fallacy of averages. Am. Nat. 132:277-288.

Hypothesis Testing

Anderson, D. R., K. P. Burnham, and W. L. Thompson. 2000. Null hypothesis testing: problems, prevalence, and an alternative. J. Wildlife Manage. 64:912-923.

Johnson, D. H. 1999. On the insignificance of statistical hypothesis testing. J. Wildlife Manage. 63:763-772.

Jones, D., and N. S. Matloff. 1986. Statistical hypothesis testing in biology: a contradiction in terms. J. Economic Entomology 79:1156-1160.

Matloff, N. S. 1991. Statistical hypothesis testing: problems and alternatives. Environmental Entomology 20:1246-1250.

Mulaik, S. A., N. S. Raju, and R. A. Harshman. 1997. There is a time and a place for significance testing. Pp. 65-115 in L. L. Harlow, S. A. Mulaik, and J. H. Steiger, eds. What if there were no significance tests? Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Mahwah, New Jersey.

Young, L. J., and J. H. Young. 1991. Alternative view of statistical hypothesis testing. Environmental Entomology 20:1241-1245.

Multiple Tests

Chandler, C. R. 1995. Practical considerations in the use of simultaneous inference for multiple tests. Animal Behaviour 49:524-527.

Rice, W. R. 1989. Analyzing tables of statistical tests. Evolution 43:487-498.

Wright, S. P. 1992. Adjusted P-values and simultaneous inference. Biometrics 48:1005-1013.


Capen, D. E. 1981. The use of multivariate statistics in studies of wildlife habitat. USDA Forest Service. General Technical Report RM-87.

Green, R. H. 1980. Multivariate approaches in ecology: the assessment of ecological similarity. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11:1-14.

Houle, D., J. Mezey, and P. Galpern. 2002. Interpretation of the results of common principal components analyses. Evolution 56:433-440.

Jackson, D. A., and K. M. Somers. 1991. Putting thngs in order: the ups and downs of detrended correspondence analysis. American Naturalist 137:704-712.

James, F. C., and C. E. McCulloch. 1990. Multivariate analysis in ecology and systematics: Panacea or Pandora's box? Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 21:129-166.

Judwig, J. A., and J. F. Reynolds. 1988. Statistical ecology. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Minchin, P. R. 1987. An evaluation of the relative robustness of techniques for ecological ordination. Vegetatio 69:89-107.

Peet, R. K., R. G. Knox, J. S. Case, and R. B. Allen. 1988. Putting things in order: the advantages of detrended correspondence analysis. American Naturalist 131:924-928.


Johnson, D. H. 1995. Statistical sirens: the allure of nonparametrics. Ecology 76:1998-2000.

Potvin, C., and D. A. Roff. 1993. Distribution-free and robust statistical methods: viable alternatives to parametric statistics. Ecology 74:1617-1628.

Seaman, J. W., Jr., and R. G. Jaeger. 1990. Statistical dogmaticae: a critical essay on statistical practice in ecology. Herpetologica 46:337-346.

One-tailed Tests

Rice, W. R., and S. D. Gaines. 1994. Heads I win, tails you lose - testing directional alternative hypotheses in ecological and evolutionary research. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9:235-237.


Gerard, P. D., D. R. Smith, and G. Weerakkody. 1998. Limits of retrospective power analysis. J. Wildlife Manage. 62:801-807.

Peterman, R. M. 1990. Statistical power analysis can improve fisheries research and management. J. Fish. Aquatic Sci. 47:2-15.

Rotenberry, J. T., and J. A. Wiens. 1985. Statistical power analysis and community-wide patterns. Am. Nat. 125:164-168.

Toft, C. A., and P. J. Shea. 1983. Detecting community-wide patterns: estimating power strengthens statistical inference. Am. Nat. 122:618-625.


Peres-Neto, P.R., and J.D. Olden. 2001. Assessing the robustness of randomization tests: examples from behavioural studies. Anim. Behav. 61:79-86.


Buonaccorsi, J. P., and A. M. Liebhold. 1988. Statistical methods for estimating ratios and products in ecological studies. Environmental Entomology 17:572-580.

Jackson, D. A., and K. M. Somers. 1991. The spectre of "spurious" correlations. Oecologia 86:147-151.

Prairie, Y. T., and D. F. Bird. 1989. Some misconceptions about the spurious correlation problem in the ecological literature. Oecologia 81:285-288.


Framstad, E., S. Engen, and N. C. Stenseth. 1985. Regression analysis, residual analysis, and missing variables in regression models. Oikos 44:319-323.

Green, A.J. 2001. Mass/length residuals: measures of body condition or generators of spurious results? Ecology 82:1473-1483.

Trexler, J. C., C. E. McCulloch, and J. Travis. 1989. How can the functional response best be determined? Oecologia 76:206-214.

Trexler, J. C., and J. Travis. 1993. Nontraditional regression analysis. Ecology 74:1629-1637.


Lessells, C. M., and P. T. Boag. 1987. Unrepeatable repeatabilities: a common mistake. Auk 104:116-121.

Repeated Measures

Beal, K. G., and H. J. Khamis. 1990. Statistical analysis of a problem data set: correlated observations. Condor 92:248-251.

Gurevitch, J., and S. T. Chester. 1986. Analysis of repeated experiments. Ecology 67:251-254.

Machlis, L., P.W.D. Dodd, and J.C. Fentress. 1985. The pooling fallacy: problems arising when individuals contribute more than one observation to the data set. Z. Tierpsychol. 68:201-214.

Potvin, C., M. J. Lechowicz, and S. Tardiff. 1990. The statistical analysis of ecophysiological response curves obtained from experiments involving repeated measures. Ecology 71:1389-1400.

Quinn, G. P., and M. J. Keough. 1991. Repeated measures analysis of variance: a comment on Beal and Khamis (1990). Condor 93:200-203.

Unequal Variances

Brownie, C., D.D. Boos, and J. Hughes-Oliver. 1990. Modifying the t and ANOVA F tests when treatment is expected to increase variability relative to controls. Biometrics 46:259-266.

Kasuya, E. 2001. Mann-Whitney U test when variances are unequal. Animal Behaviour 61:1247-1249.

Moser, B.K., G.R. Stevens, and C.L. Watts. 1992. Homogeneity of variance in the two-sample means test. American Statistician 46:19-21.

Neuhauser, M. 2002. Two sample tests when variances are unequal. Animal Behaviour 63:823-825.

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